1, You're currently reading Article List Page, Industrial manslaughter laws put on the table for Tasmania, Italy's daily COVID-19 cases hit new high, Residential landlords are friend, not foe, Making the case for change from opposition is hard, Qld Labor promises new Gold Coast hospital, Business unimpressed by 'plodding' Andrews, Weak Liberal vote in Kambah influential in southern ACT's election results, Canberra Liberals' conservatism 'crippling' and 'paralysing': Humphries, French demonstrations honour slain teacher, Australia's regional clout grows amid pandemic: Lowy Institute, Meet Victoria's 2021 Australian of the Year nominees, Canberrans create children's book for whatever the weather, Class project grows into sustainable idea, Colin Brinsden, AAP Economics and Business Correspondent. Known as Ngunnawal country to the Indigenous people of the region, Canberra was officially named as the capital of Australia on 12 March 1913, which is celebrated each year with Canberra Day. Canberra is home to the Australian National University (1936) and colleges of technical and further education. Following the inauguration of the commonwealth in 1901, the site was chosen for the new capital in 1909, and the delineation of the ACT followed. While this resolved the issue of favouritism between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, it posed a raft of challenges for those in charge of finding just the right site. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. However, a compromise was needed to establish a national capital location that met the requirements of the Australian Constitution (Section 125, to be exact). On 12 March 1913 the foundation stone of Canberra was laid by Prime Minister Andrew Fisher. The city has been expanding, and its population has grown steadily. The Jervis Bay land area – a stunning piece of coastline – was added to the Australian Capital Territory via legislation in 1915 to ensure the Commonwealth had a seaport. Canberra lies astride the Molonglo River, which is a tributary of the Murrumbidgee River. Following Australia’s Federation in 1901, so began years of passionate haggling between politicians – especially those from NSW and Victoria, who argued Sydney or Melbourne should be the rightful capital of Australia. Canberra, federal capital of the Commonwealth of Australia. And after plenty of debate, studies and inspections, Canberra was finally chosen as the ideal option in 1909, and legislated in 1911. It occupies part of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), in southeastern Australia, and is about 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Sydney. Furthermore the growth of Canberra was halted by the depression of the 1930s. You can explore the history of Canberra at National Capital Exhibition. The Australian War Memorial’s foundation stone was laid on 25 April 1929, but the building wasn’t completed until 1941. You can even browse every remarkable Australian of the Year award recipient as you stroll along Lake Burley Griffin. In 1963, the British Government gifted Canberra with the 50-metre tall National Carillon to commemorate the city’s 50th anniversary. The city is also the headquarters of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and the Australian Defence Force Academy. Prior to this, Australia's military lacked formally trained officers, who were needed due to changes to the Australian military model that had emerged after Federation. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The fire also severely damaged Mount Stromlo Observatory, which subsequently was only partially restored. Legislative Assembly building for the Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, Australia. You may be surprised to learn that Canberra, an inland city, has a seaport at Jervis Bay. There are light industries and a growing tourist trade. Sources: National Archives of Australia; National Capital Authority. In early 2003, wildfires caused extensive damage to Canberra and its suburbs, where some 500 homes were destroyed and several people died. However the First World War interrupted building. Residential development has been mainly in satellite towns, including Weston Creek (1962), Belconnen (1966), and Tuggeranong (1975). Le site de Canberra a été choisi comme capitale australienne en 1908; ce choix fut un compromis entre les deux villes rivales de Sydney et Melbourne, les deux plus grandes … Canberra /kanbɛʁa/ est la capitale de l'Australie et du Territoire de la capitale australienne. Years were spent in search of a location – and consideration was given to sites including Dalgety, Bathurst, Orange, Albury and Bombala. One of the first federal facilities established in the Territory was the Royal Military College, established on the Campbells' property Duntroon, which opened in 1911. A small squatters’ settlement of stockmen, called Canberry or Canbury (a derivation of an Aboriginal term meaning “meeting place”), was made there as early as 1824. Old Parliament House (now known as the Museum of Australian Democracy) began housing national Parliament in 1927, and the impressive purpose-built National Library of Australia opened its doors in 1968. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. But do you know why Canberra was chosen as the national capital? Be among the first to discover the latest and greatest things to see and do, taste and try, explore and experience in Canberra by signing up to our newsletter. On May 9, 1927, ceremonies marked the official transfer of the federal Parliament from Melbourne to the new capital. Omissions? (2006) 323,327; (2011) 355,596. Corrections? La ville est située à l'extrémité sud du territoire de la capitale, à 280 kilomètres au sud-ouest de Sydney et à 680 km au nord-est de Melbourne. And after plenty of debate, studies and inspections, Canberra was finally chosen as the ideal option in 1909, and legislated in 1911. Notable features of the city are Mount Stromlo Observatory (established 1924), the National Library of Australia (1968), the High Court of Australia (1981), the Australian National Gallery (1982), the Church of St. John the Baptist (1845), the Australian National War Memorial (1941), and Parliament House (1988). Read more. By 1836 the name had evolved to Canberra. Updates? Walter Burley Griffin and his wife, Marion Mahony Griffin, set the vision for the city of today: with Lake Burley Griffin at the heart and a visible Parliamentary Triangle able to be seen from numerous vantage points including Mount Ainslie and a hot air balloon! While the site for Parliamentary decisions in any country can typically bear the brunt of national criticism, the people of Canberra have created a thriving, modern and diverse city of delightful beauty and welcoming hospitality. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Canberra, Official Tourism Site of Canberra, Australia, Canberra - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Canberra - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Pop. Today, you can explore artworks, historic artefacts, and learn all about the heritage of Australia – and Canberra – in museums, galleries, attractions and outdoor sites throughout the city. With many monuments and iconic buildings established in the 1940s and 1960s, these national attractions bring the country’s narrative to life. According to those rules, the new seat of Government for the Commonwealth of Australia had to be not less than 160 km from Sydney – but not in Sydney, to appease those from other states of Australia. Only the centre and inner suburbs have continued to conform to the original plans, which included Lake Burley Griffin, an ornamental water axis formed in 1963 by a dam across the Molonglo River.