political sectarianism

Autonomy would give a province more supervision over public property, which would loosen the government’s grip over the country’s large oil facilities. ( August 26, 2009) Sectarianism in Iraq does not consist of a doctrinal or theological dispute, but instead represents a struggle over resources. (CNS/Tyler Orsburn), Fr. Taking that and applying it our subject matter, we conclude that sectarianism is when “conformity with the sect’s current shibboleths”, is prioritised over looking “to the lines of struggle calculated to move decisive sectors of the class into action.” Examples of this include socialists trying to shoe horn an electoral challenge into a grass roots community driven campaigns in order to further their own interests regardless of the danger of wrecking the campaign; opposition by ‘manarchists’ or ‘brocialists’ to identity politics – which has the potential to grow class consciousness when opposed by the forces of capital and the state; telling women, LGBT folk and people of colour to keep their demands on the down low so they don’t scare anyone off, and repeatedly turning up at public meetings with the sole purpose of denouncing someone over a point of program – see the Sparts (pictured). I admit that judgmentalism and the desire for the mot juste even at the expense of Christian charity are, for the columnist, occupational hazards. Enter your email address to receive free newsletters from NCR. [10], The key regional development that deeply shaped the rise of sectarianism was the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. Taken form Hatful of History blog .

Will You Support NCR This Election Season? Sign up to receive the latest publications, event invitations, and our weekly newsletter delivered to your inbox. At this stage of the presidential race, a third rule comes into focus: Shed light, not heat. To move a fighting sector of the class into action against the established powers by only a step is more important than “a thousand programs,” Marx and Engels used to reiterate, and there’s no use denouncing them for deprecating programmatic politics. So then, what is sectarianism in a political context? [17] Madawi Al-Rasheed, “Sectarianism as Counter Revolution: The Saudi Response to the Arab Spring,” forthcoming.

Sunni-Shi‘i relations can be understood in this context. Send your thoughts and reactions to Letters to the Editor. This usage is unhelpful and obscures the real meaning of the term, which describes a real recurring problem within the radical left milieu. You fucking hypocritical cowardly dick. Jonathan Haidt, who increasingly stands as an Erasmus figure while rival factions become more extreme, listed ten causes a couple of years back.

When Ambassador Mary Ann Glendon declined to accept the Laetare Medal, and deliver the speech that accompanies it, a former Laetare winner, Judge John Noonan, did the honors and his speech was an ode to conscience: By conscience, as you graduates of 2009 know, we apprehend what God asks of us and what the love of our neighbor requires. According to a US military official, "US funding for the Iraqi National Intelligence Service amounted to US$3 billion over a three-year period that started in 2004." It is this overarching fact that determines the ebb and flow of political life and influences the relationship between sects, the rise of sectarianism, and the behavior of political and religious leaders. Fr. Operation Anfal in 1988 killed many Kurds and destroyed 2000 villages, displacing large numbers of Kurds from their mountain areas. 365 0 obj <>stream : Send your thoughts and reactions to Letters to the Editor. [1] Vali Nasr, “International Politics, Domestic Imperatives, and Identity Mobilization: Sectarianism in Pakistan, 1979-1998,” Comparative Politics 32 (January 2000), 173. Al-Hayis' visit can be seen as a reaction to years of sectarian violence and months of fruitless negotiations in the Constitutional Reform Committee, which has failed to incorporate amendments that would satisfy Iraq's political factions. This reality sheds light on the political economy of sectarianism in the Middle East, and especially the Arab Gulf region, revealing the strong incentives rulers have to cultivate non-economic sources of legitimacy in order to maintain the necessary preponderance of political support while maximizing scarce resource revenues.

Overall the trend is towards political division, because politics has taken over the function of religion, and historically when religious groups have battled for the soul of a nation the potential for altruistic evil is almost unlimited. 0000064602 00000 n (, As Iraq's government gradually takes shape, Kurdish groups continue to demand independence. Following the February 22 bombing of the Golden Dome in Samarra, sectarian violence has escalated, leading to a troublesome pattern: the inability to form a unity government has aggravated sectarian violence, which further complicates political negotiations. The question of autonomy is not new and provincial power conflicts have boiled in the country for years. It was particularly acrimonious during the 1980s when Saudi Arabia strongly backed Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq war. Middle East Institute 0000008322 00000 n Some repeat demonstrable falsehoods, others seek to give a pass to a Catholic politician on issues about which the church's teaching is unambiguous, some are just vile and others stretch the truth as if it were taffy. 0000067484 00000 n Are religious doctrinal differences primarily responsible for stoking intercommunal fear and hatred? During the 1990s, the US and UK patrolled "no-fly zones" over Iraq, claiming to protect vulnerable civilians in the (largely Kurdish) north and the (largely Shia) south. The essays in this series tackle these and other salient questions pertaining to sectarianism in the MENA and Asia Pacific regions. [1] Nasr’s insight helps deepen our theoretical understanding of identity mobilization in that it pushes the conversation beyond primordial differences and elite manipulation and focuses attention on state behavior and state-society relations.

If you want to see more of this sort of thing or my opinions on technology, dogs, anarchism, football and random nonsense, follow me on twitter.

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Drawing on research from South and Southeast Asia, Vali Nasr has suggested that we must take into account the agency of state actors in identity mobilization. So, Rule No. The Iraqi Red Crescent has been able to provide food, water, blankets and kerosene to roughly 5,000 families living in makeshift camps, less than half the total of displaced families. best defined by Marx himself: it counterposes its sect criterion of programmatic points against the real movement of the workers in the class struggle, which may not measure up to its high demands. Although the Bush administration claims that the US cannot leave Iraq because sectarian violence will escalate, Sunni and Shiite leaders are attempting to work together to force the end of the occupation, suggesting that US efforts to drive the two sects into further distrust and anger are eroding.

Whatever these groups achieve by way of articulating the application of values drawn from Catholic teaching to the political life of the nation, they also tend to contribute to the breaking down of the unity of the church. The rise of more pragmatist and reformist leaders within Iran, such as Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami, led to the restoration of diplomatic relations and a cold peace was established that lasted for most of the 1990s. Election 2020: Challenges and Opportunities for US Policy in the Middle East, Civil Society and Political Transitions in the MENA Region and Southeast Asia, “Civilianizing” the State in the MENA and Asia Pacific Regions, Islam, Migrants and Multiculturalism: A Glance at Germany, Korea and Beyond, Toward a Political Theory of Sectarianism in the Middle East: The Salience of Authoritarianism over Theology. "In September of 2007, 500 British troops left Basra and ceased to conduct regular foot patrols; the overall level of violence has decreased 90 percent since then," suggesting the main source of violence in Iraq is the occupying forces, not sectarian conflict. [2] Critically, what these societies share in common is that most of their political systems are decidedly non-democratic and various forms of authoritarianism dominate the political landscape. Critics fear that the US is actually arming both sides in a civil war, as weapons given to Sunni groups may eventually be used against the Shia-dominated government. Violent eruptions in Karbala and Basra serve as a reminder of "how precariously the country teeters on the edge of civil war." Sectarianism definition: Sectarianism is strong support for the religious or political group you belong to, and... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [11] Anti-Shi‘i polemics in the Sunni world increased dramatically after this period and were backed by significant sums of Gulf money. [12] S.V.R. Between Terror and Tolerance: Religious Leaders in Deeply Divided Societies (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2011), pp. startxref

The most important test has always been the relationship of the self-styled Marxist and the working class organized on the elementary economic level, i.e., the trade-union movement. Political elites with patronage systems, particularly from external sources, can foster sectarianism and stymie cross-sectarian cooperation. Why do sectarian conflicts erupt at particular moments in time and not at other moments? While the US has not directly divided the country, many Iraqis still see Washington as playing sectarian politics in order to shore up imperial control.

Although violence in the province has subsided in recent years, there is a risk that this power struggle between the sheiks and the government could make the area vulnerable to a regrouping of the militants in the province.

(, Sheikh Hamid al-Hayis, the leader of an alliance of Sunni tribes fighting Al-Qaeda, visited the Shiite stronghold Sadr city in an attempt at national reconciliation. In other words, there is a symbiotic relationship between pressure from society down below, which demands greater inclusion, respect, and representation, versus the refusal by ruling elites from above to share or relinquish power. The policies of leading Western liberal democracies toward this region and foreign intervention have only exacerbated these problems. More than the voice of your mother, more than an emotional impulse, this mysterious, impalpable, imprescriptible, indestructible, and indispensable guide governs our moral life. It’s often applied in any case where left wing activists won’t just agree and get along. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.

While most Muslim majority societies are Sunni, comprising about 85-90 percent of the total global Muslim population, Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Bahrain are Shi’a majority societies.

The essays in this series tackle these and other salient questions pertaining to sectarianism in the MENA and Asia Pacific regions. (Informed Comment).

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