who invented the ballpoint pen

[39][40], Famous 20th-century artists such as Andy Warhol, among others, have utilized ballpoint pens to some extent during their careers. Ballpoint pens are sometimes provided free by businesses, such as hotels and banks, printed with a company's name and logo. Biro’s mechanism kept the ink from drying inside the reservoir and completely changed how pens worked and were perceived. The ball pen was the solution to this problem and thus the British licensed the patent and produced it for their RAF pilots. The pen may be mightier than the sword, but when Jewish-Hungarian journalist László Bíró invented the ballpoint pen in the 1930s clichéd sayings were … This pen had a small steel ball which was placed so it could not fall out nor fall in but it still could rotate freely. The world's largest functioning ballpoint pen was made by Acharya Makunuri Srinivasa in India. However he did not use it to make pens. [21], During the same period, American entrepreneur Milton Reynolds came across a Birome ballpoint pen during a business trip to Buenos Aires, Argentina. This invention was not … [1] This new design was licensed by the British,[clarification needed (Which British people/institution?)] [4] It has influenced art and graphic design and spawned an artwork genre. [1], Marcel Bich also introduced a ballpoint pen to the American marketplace in the 1950s, licensed from Bíró and based on the Argentine designs. [1] In less than a year, Parker sold several million pens at prices between three and nine dollars. Biro had noticed that the ink used in newspaper printing dried quickly, leaving the paper smudge-free, so he decided to create a pen using the same type of ink. Refills allow for the entire internal ink reservoir, including a ballpoint and socket, to be replaced. Modern ballpoints are said to have a two-year shelf life, on average. The drying time of the ink varies depending upon the viscosity of the ink and the diameter of the ball. [3] These pens, known as "advertising pens," are the same as standard ballpoint pen models, but have become valued among collectors. The Ballpoint Pen American John Loud first patented the ball point design for designing leather. The International Organization for Standardization has published standards for ball point and roller ball pens: "Ball Pen" redirects here. [3] Patents filed worldwide during early development are testaments to failed attempts at making the pens commercially viable and widely available. [3], Bíró's innovation successfully coupled ink-viscosity with a ball-socket mechanism which acted compatibly to prevent ink from drying inside the reservoir while allowing controlled flow. Ballpoint pen ink is normally a paste containing around 25 to 40 percent dye. Such was the popularity of the Birome that the British licensed the design, renamed it Biro, and supplied these modern marvels to their RAF pilots to use as the fountain pens would leak in high altitude under the high pressure. The dyes used in blue and black ballpoint pens are basic dyes based on triarylmethane and acid dyes derived from diazo compounds or phthalocyanine. He decided to create a pen using the same type of ink. [39] Additionally, "blobbing" of ink on the drawing surface and "skipping" of ink-flow require consideration when using ballpoint pens for artistic purposes. [1] In the 1960s, the failing Eversharp Co. sold its pen division to Parker and ultimately folded. In the patent, he described the writing tool as such: “My invention consists of an improved reservoir or fountain pen, especially useful, among other purposes, for marking on rough surfaces such as wood, coarse wrapping-paper, and other articles where an ordinary pen could not be used.”. On average, a ballpoint pen can write about 45,000 words. The first prototypes were flawed, from ink that overflowed or didn’t flow at all, to ink that didn’t flow evenly. T he first whispers came in the summer of 1944: a Hungarian inventor living in Argentina had created something sensational. Common dyes in blue (and black) ink are Prussian blue, Victoria blue, methyl violet, crystal violet, and phthalocyanine blue. Some pen manufacturers produce designer ballpoint pens for the high-end and collectors' markets. [3][24] Bich shortened his name to Bic in 1953, becoming the ballpoint brand now recognized globally. ][16][17][18][19][20], Following World War II, many companies vied to commercially produce their own ballpoint pen design. Pastor appreciation gift ideas are a hot topic…, You know when you went trick-or-treating as a kid and you got a bunch of toothbrushes and raisins instead of…, One way to get your brand on a pair of custom earbuds? The story of the ball pen is that of mankind’s constant search for a solution to everyday problems and illustrates how a simple need can transform a whole industry, and bring about long-lasting changes that could affect world events. [9] In 1954, Parker Pens released "The Jotter" — the company's first ballpoint—boasting additional features and technological advances which also included the use of tungsten-carbide textured ball-bearings in their pens. [27] The ink formulas of erasable ballpoints have properties similar to rubber cement, allowing the ink to be literally rubbed clean from the writing surface before drying and eventually becoming permanent. This challenge inspired him to create a writing instrument with a small rotating metal ball that was held in place by a socket. [44], Although designs and construction vary between brands, basic components of all ballpoint pens are universal. And, while it is true that he’s the inventor of the modern ballpoint pen, another man paved the way for Bíró. Color availability and sensitivity of ink to light are among concerns of ballpoint pen artists. Multi-pens are pens that feature multiple varying colored pen refills. After World War II, the race was on to bring the modern ballpoint pen to the United States. [4] If the ball socket was too tight, or the ink too thick, it would not reach the paper. John J. Loudfrom Massachusetts is the inventor of the first ballpoint pen. Who invented the ballpoint pen may not be a question you ask yourself often, as this writing tool is so ubiquitous, you rarely give it a second thought. The concept of using a "ball point" within a writing instrument as a method of applying ink to paper has existed since the late 19th century. In simple terms, this ball-and-socket mechanism allows the ball to roll around easily on paper while sealing the ink from the air so it doesn’t dry out. However, technology developed by Fisher pens in the United States resulted in the production of what came to be known as the "Fisher Space Pen". [1][14], In 1941, the Bíró brothers and a friend, Juan Jorge Meyne, fled Germany and moved to Argentina, where they formed "Bíró Pens of Argentina" and filed a new patent in 1943. Although Reynolds was aware that the gravity feed was prone to leaking, he rushed the pen into production anyway—on October 29, 1945, the Reynolds Rocket was introduced at Gimbels, a department store in New York City. Some ballpoint pens use a hybrid ink formulation whose viscosity is lower than that of standard ballpoint ink, but greater than rollerball ink. [4] Ink reservoirs pressurized by piston, spring, capillary action, and gravity would all serve as solutions to ink-delivery and flow problems. [4] In modern disposable pens, narrow plastic tubes contain the ink, which is compelled downward to the ball by gravity. The Birome was licensed and made in Britain for the Royal Air Force to use at high altitudes because fountain pens leaked ink when used at that elevation. At right, Birome advertisement in Argentine magazine. And if you can’t wait to get your hands on your own ballpoint pen, check out our most popular custom ballpoint pens. Originally a sealed streamlined cap, the modern pen cap has a small hole at the top to meet safety standards, helping to prevent suffocation if children suck it into the throat.[32]. The design included a steel ball held in a socket which rotates and applies ink on the surface. Trying to invent a pen which can write on leather, a tanner John J.

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